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Download e-book for iPad: An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

By Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

ISBN-10: 0754613666

ISBN-13: 9780754613664

This paintings introduces the topic of formal good judgment when it comes to a method that's "like syllogistic logic". Its approach, like out of date, conventional syllogistic, is a "term logic". The authors' model of good judgment ("term-function logic", TFL) stocks with Aristotle's syllogistic the perception that the logical different types of statements which are focused on inferences as premises or conclusions may be construed because the results of connecting pairs of phrases via a logical copula (functor). This perception contrasts markedly with that which informs modern ordinary formal common sense ("modern predicate logic", MPL). The publication is meant as a device for the creation of TFL to the start pupil of good judgment. it is usually a bankruptcy introducing typical MPL. There are numerous workout sections and a precis of the most principles, legislation and rules of TFL. For the philosophically orientated there are discussions of significant matters on the intersections of semantics, metaphysics, epistemology and good judgment.

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Extra resources for An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms

Sample text

All true statements denote one and the same world. As for false statements, they have expressive meaning but apart from that they are vacuous. Reasoning 23 17. Summary and Discussion on the Meaning of Statements If 's' is a statement then 1. 's' expresses [s] (the proposition that s) If [s] is true of the world, then , a fact, is an existential characteristic of the world and 2. 's' signifies , 3. [s] corresponds to , 4. [s] 'obtains', is true, is a FACT, 5. 's' denotes the world, 6. 's' is true.

We call 18 An Invitation to Formal Reasoning the totality of things under consideration when a given statement is made or when a given argument is presented 'the domain of the claim' (DC). Logicians sometimes refer to the DC as 'the universe of discourse'. Very often the totality under consideration is the whole world. For example, in asserting 'some women are farmers' one expresses the characterization SOME WOMEN BEING FARMERS or BEING {WOMAN FARMER}ISH, claiming (correctly) that this characterizes the contemporaneous world.

Here one should distinguish between STATES that are expressed and the states that are signified. What a statement expresses is a proposition or STATE OF AFFAIRS, what it signifies, if anything, is a fact or state of affairs (lower case). False statements express STATES but they do not signify states. For example, THE EXISTENCE OF MERMAIDS is the STATE OF AFFAIRS expressed by 'there are mermaids'. But there is no such state of affairs as the existence of mermaids. So THE EXISTENCE OF MERMAIDS does not 22 An Invitation to Formal Reasoning obtain.

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An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen


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